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### Power dissipation

At any instant, the power *P* (watts) consumed by a resistor of resistance *R* (ohms) is calculated as: where *V* (volts) is the voltage across the resistor and *I* (amps) is the current flowing through it. Using Ohm's law, the two other forms can be derived. This power is converted into heat which must be dissipated by the resistor's package before its temperature rises excessively.

Resistors are rated according to their maximum power dissipation. Discrete resistors in solid-state electronic systems are typically rated as 1/10, 1/8, or 1/4 watt. They usually absorb much less than a watt of electrical power and require little attention to their power rating.

An aluminium-housed power resistor rated for 50 W when heat-sinked

Resistors required to dissipate substantial amounts of power, particularly used in power supplies, power conversion circuits, and power amplifiers, are generally referred to as *power resistors*; this designation is loosely applied to resistors with power ratings of 1 watt or greater. Power resistors are physically larger and may not use the preferred values, color codes, and external packages described below.

If the average power dissipated by a resistor is more than its power rating, damage to the resistor may occur, permanently altering its resistance; this is distinct from the reversible change in resistance due to its temperature coefficient when it warms. Excessive power dissipation may raise the temperature of the resistor to a point where it can burn the circuit board or adjacent components, or even cause a fire. There are flameproof resistors that fail (open circuit) before they overheat dangerously.

Since poor air circulation, high altitude, or high operating temperatures may occur, resistors may be specified with higher rated dissipation than is experienced in service.

All resistors have a maximum voltage rating; this may limit the power dissipation for higher resistance values.

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